a legal entity engaged in generation, including from renewable sources, distribution, supply, consumption, aggregation, energy storage, energy efficiency services or charging services for electric vehicles or provide other energy services to its members or shareholders; it is based on voluntary and open participation and has as primary purpose that to provide environmental, economic or social community benefits to its members rather than to generate financial profits;
Distribution system operators are the operating managers (and sometimes owners) of energy distribution networks, operating at low, medium and, in some cases, high voltage levels.
An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or an electric generator to convert fuel to electricity.
A Green House Gas is any of the gases whose absorption of solar radiation is responsible for the greenhouse effect, including carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, and the fluorocarbons.
In the H2020 framework programme, the Innovation Action primarily consists of activities directly aiming at producing plans and arrangements or designs for new, altered or improved products, processes or services. For this purpose they may include prototyping, testing, demonstrating, piloting, large-scale product validation and market replication.
The LCOE determines how much money must be made per unit of electricity (kWh, MWh etc. or even other type of energy like home heating) to recoup the lifetime costs of the system. This includes the initial capital investment, maintenance costs, the cost of fuel for the system (if any), any operational costs and the discount rate.
A Local Energy Community is a legal entity, effectively controlled by local shareholders or members, that manages the LES. Generally value- rather than profit driven: an association, a cooperative.
A Local Energy System is a connected energy system that includes performing activities of a distribution system operator, supplier or aggregators at local level. Typically includes renewable generation.
LLCOE covers lifetime costs of energy generation and distribution, divided by energy production. This measure calculates present value of total system costs operations for the community it serves. This allows comparison between different system designs of unequal model (centralized, decentralized), life span, size, capital costs, etc. The measure differs from the know LCOE, which considers only individual assets.
Multi-Actor Multi-Criteria Analysis (MAMCA) is a decision-making model which enables the simultaneous evaluation of alternative policy measures, scenarios, technologies, and so on. Frequently, organizations use decision-making models to make faster and better decisions. Within MAMCA, different stakeholders’ opinions are explicitly included at an early stage of the decision-making process.